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Notes: DE RUYTER was authorized in 1930 to replace the cancelled CELEBES (the third ship of the SUMATRA class) and provide the third cruiser deemed necessary on the East Indies station. The design was severely limited by financial considerations; six - 5.9" guns were to be carried, and armor was to be similar to the SUMATRA class. The design was then criticized for being too small and too lightly armed. Modifications were then made to the design, with the hull being lengthened to improve the lines (and as a result, speed), and to provide room for both another 5.9" gun and a catapult and aircraft. The final design was accepted in August, 1932. The 40mm AA guns were mounted close together on the aft superstructure, which unfortunately limited their arcs of fire and made them susceptible to being eliminated by a single bomb hit. However, the fire control systems were very advanced for their time, and included remote controls, stabilization, and a fair amount of automation. Normally, one spotting plane was carried, but a second one could be accommodated between the catapult and the aft superstructure. The boilers were evenly disposed in three boiler rooms, and at overload, DE RUYTER was capable of 33.5 knots. All of the uptakes led to a single funnel.
DE RUYTER served her entire career in the Far East, and was the flagship of Rear Admiral Karel Doorman's ABDA (Australian, British, Dutch and American) squadron. On 3 February 1942, DE RUYTER sailed with the rest of the ABDA squadron in attempt to attack a Japanese convoy en route to Makassar. They were driven off by Japanese aircraft; DE RUYTER was slightly damaged by a near-miss, and her 40mm gunners claimed one of the Japanese bombers. On 11 February 1942, she collided with the American destroyer WHIPPLE; fortunately, neither ship was seriously damaged.
DE RUYTER served again as Rear Admiral Doorman's flagship at the Battle of the Java Sea on the night of 27-28 February 1942. She was hit by gunfire and a "Long Lance" torpedo fired by the Japanese heavy cruiser HAGURO, and sank two hours later with a heavy loss of life, including Rear Admiral Doorman.